Windows offer few ways to check your current installed windows (security, office, ie and etc) patches.
All you have two do is by running the following commands in your command prompt, I believe the second option also allows us to include parameters for better result, check and comments on this post. Thanks for reading guys
syseminfo – Provides more information on your current system which includes the windows updates latest patch installed.
wmic qfe list – Shows you the list of windows patches installed in your PC.
Option 1 result: